Texas Settlement History | American Experience | PBS (2023)

Remember the Alamo | Timeline

Texas Settlement History


Texas Settlement History | American Experience | PBS (1)

In response to French encroachment in the northeastern region of New Spain, the Spanish establish buffer settlements. Franciscan missionaries led by Antonio de San Buenaventura Olivares begin three missions: Los Adaes, La Bahia, and Mission San Antonio de Valero.

Settlers arrive from the Canary Islands to form a new civil settlement, San Fernando de Béxar.

Béxar has developed a thriving ranching economy dominated by missionaries, soldiers, and civilians. Competition between them for the area's resources results in the Spanish Crown's decree of sovereignty over all stray cattle and wild mustangs.

France, Spain and England agree to divide the land in the New World. In the Treaty of Paris, Spain cedes Florida to England in return for Havana and Manila. Spain receives Louisiana from France, and English territory extends to the Mississippi River.

The threat of Indian hostilities causes Spain to reorganize its outposts. Los Adaes is eliminated and its population relocates to Béxar. Béxar becomes a provincial capital.

The population of Béxar has increased; 1,351 persons live in civilian and presidio communities, and 709 reside in the missions.

By order of the King of Spain, San Antonio de Valero Mission is secularized, and ranch properties are distributed among the civilian population.

February 27: José Antonio Navarrois born to Maria Josefa and Angel Navarro at San Antonio de Béxar.

Spain agrees to return Louisiana to France. In 1803, Napoleon will sell the land to the United States. President Thomas Jeffersonwill more than double the size of the new United States and gain control of the Mississippi River with this Louisiana Purchase.

An American trader and filibuster, Philip Nolan, enters northeast Texas to hunt for wild horses. Spanish troops from Nacogdoches capture Nolan and his party. To ward off other encroachments, Spain floods the border with troops over the next five years.

The Mission San Antonio de Valero is converted to a military post. The Second Company of San Carlos de Parras from El Alamo in Coahuila is stationed there.

November 31: José Antonio's father, Angel Navarro, dies.

San Antonio de Béxar experiences an economic slowdown and famine.

September 16: Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla rebels against Spanish rule in Mexico and leads mestizos (people of mixed blood) in a movement for independence. The struggle for independence will not succeed until 1821.

Factions in San Antonio become involved in the Mexican independence movement. Juan Bautista de las Casas leads local troops, seizes government officials, and proclaims allegiance to the cause of Father Miguel de Hidalgo y Costilla. A month later, loyalist residents under Juan Manuel Zambrano retake San Antonio. Las Casas and other rebels are tried and executed.

A filibustering army led by a Mexican, José Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara, and an American, Augustus Magee, take San Antonio and execute Spanish officials. Gutierrez declares Texas' independence and drafts a constitution.

Navarro and other youths watch the battle of Apache-Alazan Creek from a church tower; José Angel Navarro, José Antonio's older brother, and Antonio López de Santa Annaserve in the Spanish army while others in the Navarro family support the revolutionaries. When royalists confiscate the Navarro property, the family is forced to flee to Louisiana.

A Spanish force under José Joaquin Arredondo defeats the rebel army and recaptures San Antonio.

The Spanish Crown pardons the Navarro family and other revolutionaries. The Navarros will return to Texas the following year.

José Antonio Navarro's first daughter, Maria Casimira, is born. A son, José Antonio George, will arrive in 1818.

In the Adams-Onis Treaty, Spain cedes the Floridas to the United States in exchange for Spain's recognized sovereignty over Texas, the recognition of the Sabine River as an international frontier, and the U.S. government's assumption of $5 million of Spanish debts to American citizens.

Navarro, attempting to make a living in the depressed economy of San Antonio de Béxar, illegally trades Texas mustangs for goods in Louisiana. Deputy Juan Manuel Zambrano arrests Navarro for smuggling and sentences him to a jail term.

March: Navarro is released from prison.

August 3: Stephen F. Austinarrives in San Antonio.

August 29: Antonio López de Santa Anna accepts a position in the Spanish army as lieutenant general. Later that day, he declares allegiance to the Mexican rebellion and its leader, Agustín de Iturbide. The Plan of Iguala establishes Mexican independence, and Iturbide proclaims himself Mexico's new emperor.

March: Austin returns to San Antonio; Navarro serves as InterimAlcalde(mayor) andJuez(judge).

Agustín de Iturbide abdicates as Emperor of Mexico and the territory, including Texas, is organized as a republic. The Mexican Congress grants Texans a seven-year exemption from Mexican tariffs.

Navarro is appointed secretary of San Antonio'sAyuntamiento(City Council).

May 7: The new Mexican constitutional government establishes Coahuila y Texas as a single state, with the capital at Saltillo.

Late 1820s
Mexicans disagree about whether the states or the national government should hold more power under the new constitution. Centralists believe power should be centralized in the national government in Mexico City. Federalists wish to distribute power to the state governments. Tejanos who align with the Federalists are led by revolutionary war veterans Guadalupe Victoria, Vicente Guerrero, and Lorenzo de Zavala.

Tejanos, working with the liberal Viesca family, pass the State Colonization Law, which protects landowners from creditors, allows settlers to claim unsurveyed land with a ten-year tax exemption, appoints Anglo land agents to facilitate the application process, and allows colonists to retain their Protestant faith.

Texas becomes a department under the state government, with its political chief residing in San Antonio. United States president John Quincy Adamsoffers $1 million to Mexico to purchase Texas, but is turned down.

The Texas y Coahuila state constitution recognizes slavery, but prohibits the importation of slaves after November 1827. Soon after, the law bans the slave trade and frees the slaves of owners who die without heirs.

Navarro represents Texas in the first Texas y Coahuila legislature.

General Manuel Mier y Teran, military commander of Mexico's northeastern provinces, conducts a tour of the Texas border and reports that Anglos are importing slaves illegally and violating Mexican laws regarding the courts and religion.

May: The Texas y Coahuila state constitution disguises slavery as "indentured servitude."

September 15: Mexican president Vicente Guerrero frees all slaves, but Texans obtain an exemption from the national slave emancipation decree. Santa Anna becomes a national hero when he defeats Spanish forces at Tampico. Rebel leader Anastacio Bustamante stages a coup against President Guerrero. The Plan of Jalapa removes Guerrero and institutes a Centralist administration. The change of power means leaders in Mexico City become more suspicious of the U.S., and of Anglo colonists in Texas.

Thirty thousand Anglos have arrived in Texas, overwhelming the Tejano population of 4000. United States president Andrew Jackson unsuccessfully offers $5 million to purchase Texas.

April 6: The Mexican Congress passes the Law of 1830. It prohibits settlement in Texas by immigrants from the U.S.; establishes military installations in Anglo colonies of Central and East Texas; forbids the importation of slaves; and cancels all colonization contracts still outstanding. The law will be repealed in 1833.

Navarro invests in 50,000 acres of ranch land and becomes Land Commissioner for the Green Dewitt Colony over the next two years.

Anglos outnumber Tejanos ten to one in Texas. Mexicans deploy customs agents to Texas to collect tariffs.

June: Protesting Mexican customs agents, William B. Travisis arrested for anti-government rhetoric. Anglo colonists pass the Turtle Bayou Resolutions, accusing the Mexican government of constitutional violations. The Resolutions also declare Texans' support of the uprising of Santa Anna against Bustamante.

October: The Convention of 55 at San Felipe de Austin draws up a list of grievances, but it is annulled by Ramon Musquiz, political chief of the Department of Texas.

A year-long cholera epidemic spreads through Béxar.

Antonio López de Santa Anna is elected president after endorsing liberalism and overthrowing President Bustamente. He declines to take office, and his vice president, Gómez Valentín Farias, becomes president.

Stephen F. Austin presents another Texan convention's resolutions in Mexico.

As a result of Austin's influence, Mexico repeals the ban on Anglo immigration. Texas state law allows Anglos to buy land at a reasonable price, grants Texans three seats in the state legislature, and declares English an official language.

January 2: Austin is jailed in Mexico for one year because of a letter he wrote calling for Texas statehood. War and Peace Party factions emerge in the Texas colonies.

Santa Anna deposes Farias and assumes the presidency; he establishes a Centralist regime, and placeshombres de bien(elites) in power. The new Congress dissolves state legislatures, limits state militias, and abrogates the federal Constitution of 1824. Rebellions erupt in Zacatecas and Texas.

January: Santa Anna deploys customs agents to Anahuac to collect tariffs.

May 10-11: Battle of Zacatecas. Santa Anna's Army of Operations defeats the rebels, executes all Anglos, and leaves the city destroyed.

Austin is released from prison.

The Battle of Gonzales takes place. Gonzales residents refuse to return a cannon to the Mexican army. Santa Anna sends troops under General Martin Perfecto de Cos to San Antonio. Cos fortifies the Alamo; Tejanos join the rebel camp under Juan N. Seguin, Salvador Flores, and Manuel Leal.

October-December: Texans besiege Béxar. One hundred and sixty Tejanos participate. By December 10, General Cos surrenders. The Anglos return home after the battle, but Seguin and other Tejanos keep a vigil along the Rio Grande.

Navarro is appointed a federal senator but declines the office, due to turmoil in Texas.

Texas Settlement History | American Experience | PBS (2)

February 1: Tejanos elect Navarro and Francisco Ruiz as delegates to Washington-on-the-Brazos to declare Texas independence.

February 8: Former Tennessee congressman David Crockett arrives with volunteers to defend the Alamo.

February 12: Travis is elected commander of the enlisted army forces at the Alamo, while Jim Bowie leads the volunteers.

February 23: The Mexican Army of Operations under Santa Anna reaches San Antonio. Texan forces retreat inside the Alamo.

March 1: Twenty-two men from Gonzales join the Alamo.

March 2: Delegates at Washington-on-the-Brazos approve the Texas Declaration of Independence. Navarro, with his uncle, Francisco Ruiz, signs the declaration. The two men stay to serve on a committee to draft the republic's new constitution.

March 6: A bloody Mexican attack on the Alamobegins before dawn, and the Mexican forces slaughter all inside except for the women, children, and Travis' slave, Joe. Mexican losses number around 600.

March 20: Mexicans capture a Texan force retreating from Goliad, led by James W. Fannin, near Coleto Creek.

March 27: Santa Anna orders the execution of Fannin and 350 men at Goliad.

April 21: The Texan army defeats and captures Santa Anna at San Jacinto, and secures independence for Texas.

May 14: Santa Anna signs the Treaty of Velasco. It ceases hostilities and withdraws Mexican troops south of the Rio Grande.

September: Texans approve their new Constitution of the Republic of Texas. Sam Houstonis elected president.

October: The First Congress of the Republic of Texas convenes.

November: Santa Anna is released by Texans and travels to Washington to meet with U.S. officials.

Colonel Juan Nepmuceno Seguín, military commander of San Antonio, presides over the burial of the Alamo defenders' ashes. San Antonio is incorporated and Béxar County is created.

Navarro writes to Sam Houston to protest army confiscations of Tejano property at Béxar. He gathers declarations from Tejanos that they did not participate with the Mexicans in fighting against the Republic of Texas during the Texas Revolution.

Navarro serves in the Texas Republic's House of Representatives. His brother Eugenio, accused of being a Mexican sympathizer, is killed in his presence by an Anglo settler.

The town of Austin is chosen as Texas' capital.

Texas president Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar asks Navarro to serve as commissioner of the Texas Santa Fé Expedition. The expedition aims to take control of the eastern part of New Mexico and make it part of the Texas Republic. The Mexican government captures the expedition near Santa Fé. Navarro, accused of treason, is imprisoned in Mexico until 1844.

Mexican troops invade Texas and briefly re-occupy San Antonio. Mexican and Texan forces fight the decisive Battle of Salado, and the Mexicans are turned back.

Navarro is released from prison in Mexico and returns home to Texas a hero.

Navarro is the sole Hispanic delegate to the Convention of 1845, where Texas accepts U.S. president James K. Polk'sproposal for annexation. Navarro helps to write the first state constitution, the Constitution of 1845. He is also elected to the first Texas state legislature and serves two terms as a state senator.

October 13: Texan citizens overwhelmingly approve the annexation of Texas. On December 29, the U.S. Congress will approve the annexation, and Texas will be named the 28th state in the union.

February 19: The government transfer of power takes place and Texas officially joins the United States. U.S. government troops occupy the Alamo.

The U.S. provokes the Mexican-American Warin order to claim more North American territory under Mexican rule. Young U.S. soldiers include future president Ulysses S. Grantand future Confederate general Robert E. Lee. The war makes heroes out of Generals Winfield Scottand future president Zachary Taylor.

The Texas state legislature establishes Navarro County in recognition of José Antonio Navarro's contributions to the region. The county seat is designated Corsicana in honor of his father's place of birth.

The U.S. and Mexico sign the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo to end the war. Mexico accepts the Rio Grande as the southern boundary of Texas and gives up California and the province of New Mexico. The U.S. agrees to pay Mexico $15 million and to assume claims of American citizens against the Mexican government.

Navarro is the first Tejano to write about the history of Texas. He publishes hisApuntes Históricos(Historical Notes) in installments in theSan Antonio Ledger. When the anti-foreigner Know Nothing Partystarts to gain power, Navarro sells his San Geronimo ranch and re-enters politics as a San Antonio alderman. He informs Tejanos of the party's threat to their interests, and the Know Nothings are defeated at the polls in 1855.

January 13: Navarro dies at his home in San Antonio and is buried with an enormous public funeral. He leaves 20,000 acres and multiple town properties to his five children.


What were the two requirements of the settlers of Texas? ›

Moses and Stephen Austin contracted to bring "500 families on the vacant lands remaining within the limits of the colony already established." The contract stipulates that "The families which are to compose this Colony besides being industrious as he offers in his petition must be Cat[ho]lics, and of good morals." ...

What was one of the requirements to settle in Texas? ›

Settlers had to improve the land, recognize themselves as Mexican citizens, and adhere to the Roman Catholic Church. In exchange, the government waived taxes and gave Texas settlers more liberties than afforded to other provinces.

What 3 settlements were in Texas during this time? ›

In response to French encroachment in the northeastern region of New Spain, the Spanish establish buffer settlements. Franciscan missionaries led by Antonio de San Buenaventura Olivares begin three missions: Los Adaes, La Bahia, and Mission San Antonio de Valero.

What were the reasons for settlement in Texas? ›

Anglo-Americans were drawn by inexpensive land and believed annexation of Texas to the United States was likely and would improve the market for the land. Some settlers were fleeing debts and sought refuge in the Mexican colony, where they were safe from American creditors.

What were the 2 main reasons for settlers to come to America? ›

They wanted religious freedom and economic opportunity. The United States is a country where individual rights and self-government are important. This has always been true. Colonists first came to America for more freedom.

What were 2 things that led Texas to seek independence? ›

Texas formally declared independence in March of 1836; there were many reasons why they did so.
  • The Settlers Were Culturally American, Not Mexican. ...
  • The Issue of Enslaved Workers. ...
  • The Abolishment of the 1824 Constitution. ...
  • Chaos in Mexico City. ...
  • Texas Was Part of the State of Coahuila y Texas.
Apr 8, 2020

What were the requirements for Anglos to settle in Mexican Texas? ›

The foreigners were to be Catholic, industrious, and willing to become Spanish citizens in return for generous land grants. Spain expected the new settlers to increase economic development and help deter the aggressive and mobile Plains Indians such as the Comanches and Kiowas.

Who were the first people to settle in Texas? ›

Austin's Colony was the first and largest Anglo-American settlement in Mexican Texas and was established by Stephen F. Austin in 1821. It was authorized by the Mexican government and allowed for the introduction of 300 families into Texas.

When did settlers begin to settle in Texas? ›

Sugar Land's roots extend back to the first 300 settlers who came to Texas in the 1820's with Stephen F. Austin, the “Father of Texas.” The northern territory of Mexico, Austin negotiated a grant with the Mexican government to bring 300 colonists to settle a large area of land between the San Antonio and Brazos Rivers.

What were the first 3 settlements? ›

In a space of two years, however, in 1607 and 1608, the Spanish, English, and French founded settlements north of the 30th latitude that survived despite the odds against them—Santa Fé in New Mexico (1607), Jamestown on the Atlantic coast (1607), and Quebec on the St. Lawrence River (1608).

How was slavery a part of the settlement of Texas? ›

Americans of European extraction and enslaved people contributed greatly to the population growth in the Republic and State of Texas. Settlements grew and developed more land under cultivation in cotton and other commodities. The cotton industry flourished in East Texas, where enslaved labor became most widely used.

What are the three main settlements in Texas after the missions? ›

The Spanish decided that if they were to keep Texas, they must occupy it. Spanish missions and settlements provided a stronger hold on Texas than did the French traders. Early Spaniards originally named some of Texas's settlements—San Antonio, Nacogdoches, and La Bahía.

What was the main reason for settlement? ›

The opportunity to make money was one of the primary motivators for the colonization of the New World. The Virginia Company of London established the Jamestown colony to make a profit for its investors. Europe's period of exploration and colonization was fueled largely by necessity.

Why did Mexico allow settlement in Texas? ›

The Mexican government felt threatened by the native groups and feared that the U.S. would try to take Texas; with the help of empresarios, they moved settlers into the area to implement control over the region.

What were the 3 main reasons people settled the American colonies? ›

Colonists came to America because they wanted political liberty. They wanted religious freedom and economic opportunity. The United States is a country where individual rights and self-government are important. This has always been true.

What were 3 reasons why settlers migrated to the West? ›

Gold rush and mining opportunities (silver in Nevada) The opportunity to work in the cattle industry; to be a “cowboy” Faster travel to the West by railroad; availability of supplies due to the railroad. The opportunity to own land cheaply under the Homestead Act.

What were the 3 reasons for colonization? ›

Overview. Historians generally recognize three motives for European exploration and colonization in the New World: God, gold, and glory.

What helped Texas gain independence? ›

Remembering how badly the Texans had been defeated at the Alamo, on April 21, 1836, Houston's army won a quick battle against the Mexican forces at San Jacinto and gained independence for Texas. Soon after, Houston was elected president of the Republic of Texas.

Who did Texas seek independence from and why? ›

The Texas Declaration of Independence was issued during a revolution against the Mexican government that began in October 1835 following a series of government edicts including the dissolution of state legislatures, disarmament of state militias, and abolition of the Constitution of 1824.

What did Mexico require of the first Americans who settled in Texas? ›

Mexico imposed two conditions on land ownership: settlers had to become Mexican citizens, and they had to convert to Roman Catholicism. By 1830 there were 16,000 Americans in Texas.

What were Texas settlers called? ›

Texians were Anglo-American residents of Mexican Texas and, later, the Republic of Texas. Today, the term is used to identify early settlers of Texas, especially those who supported the Texas Revolution. Mexican settlers of that era are referred to as Tejanos, and residents of modern Texas are known as Texans.

Where were most Texas settlers from? ›

The majority of the colonists were from the United States; they said that Mexico had invited them to move to the country, but they were determined "to enjoy" the republican institutions to which they were accustomed in their native land.

Who brought the first 300 settlers to Texas? ›

The title Old 300 refers to the settlers who received land grants as part of Stephen F. Austin's first colonial contract in Mexican Texas.

What events led to American settlement of Texas? ›

The explorations of René-Robert Cavelier, sieur (lord) de La Salle, and his colony at Matagorda Bay were the bases of French claims to East Texas. American colonization gained impetus when the United States purchased the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803 and claimed title to lands as far west as the Rio Grande.

Where did early Texas settlers live? ›

Austin, Green DeWitt, Haden Edwards, and Martin de León, found the areas around the Brazos, Colorado, and Trinity Rivers to be especially hospitable, and soon fledgling colonies sprung up in eastern and central Texas.

When did white settlers move to Texas? ›

During the 19th century there were streams of migration into Texas. Between 1821 and 1836 an estimated 38,000 settlers, on promise of 4,000 acres (1,620 hectares) per family for small fees, trekked from the United States into the territory.

What is the oldest known settlement? ›

Approximately 25,000 years ago, during the Upper Paleolithic period of the Stone Age, a small settlement of mammoth hunters consisting of huts built with rocks and mammoth bones was founded on the site of what is now Dolní Věstonice. This is the oldest permanent human settlement that has ever been found.

What did early settlers need? ›

a local water supply for drinking, washing, cooking and transport. dry land, so that people could build on areas that don't flood. a defendable site, eg a hilltop or river bend, to protect from attackers. good farm land with fertile soils, so people could grow crops.

Where is the oldest settlement? ›

Çatalhöyük is a city founded 9,000 years ago, and this UNESCO World Heritage Site is well-worth visiting to see the remains of an ancient (like, REALLY ancient) city.

Who brought slaves to Texas? ›

Most enslaved people in Texas were brought by white families from the southern United States. Some enslaved people came through the domestic slave trade, which was centered in New Orleans. A smaller number of enslaved people were brought via the international slave trade, though this had been illegal since 1806.

Why did Texas wait to free slaves? ›

Why Did it Take so Long for Texas to Free Slaves? The Emancipation Proclamation extended freedom to enslaved people in Confederate States that were still under open rebellion. However, making that order a reality depended on military victories by the U.S. Army and an ongoing presence to enforce them.

Who owned the slaves in Texas? ›

Only one in every four families in antebellum Texas owned slaves, but these slaveholders, especially the planters who held twenty or more slaves, generally constituted the state's wealthiest class. Because of their economic success, these planters represented the social ideal for many other Texans.

What were 3 types of Spanish settlements? ›

missions – religious communities. presidios – military bases. towns – small villages with farmers and merchants.

What are the 4 types of Spanish settlements? ›

  • Pueblos. Towns which became the centers of trade.
  • Mission. Religious communities that included a small town, surronding farmland and a church.
  • Presidios. Forts, typically built near the missions.
  • Plantations. ...
  • Another woed for Plantations.

What 4 missions were first built in Texas? ›

While the Alamo may be the most well-known, in the 18th century, Spanish priests established five additional Catholic missions: San Antonio de Valero, San José, Concepción, San Juan and Espada, all along the San Antonio River.

What is a settlement in history? ›

In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community of people living in a particular place. The complexity of a settlement can range from a minuscule number of dwellings grouped together to the largest of cities with surrounding urbanized areas.

What is settlement and why is it important? ›

The function of a settlement helps to identify the economic and social development of a place and can show its main activity. Most large settlements have more than one function though in the past one function was maybe the most important in defining the success and growth in importance of the settlement.

Where did the settlement start? ›

The settlement movement began officially in the United States in 1886, with the establishment of University Settlement, New York. Settlements derived their name from the fact that the resident workers “settled” in the poor neighborhoods they sought to serve, living there as friends and neighbors.

What is the most important Texas history? ›

What is Texas Historically Famous For? The most famous event in Texas history is the Battle of the Alamo from February 26 to March 6, 1836. Many famous historical figures lost their lives during the 13-day siege, including David Bowie, William B. Travis, and Davy Crockett.

What is Texas historically famous for? ›

Texas is known for its cowboy culture, which is a large part of the state's history and heritage. Cowboys were originally cattle herders who drove their herds from Texas to markets in other states. You can still see them riding horses in the Texan countryside.

What were two reasons the US did not add Texas to the states? ›

One reason that some people did not want to annex Texas as a state was the issue of slavery. Texas was a slave state and would have tipped the balance between the free states and slave states toward slavery. A second issue with making Texas a state was the worry that doing so would incite war with Mexico.

What rules did the American settlers have to follow in Texas? ›

Settlers had to improve the land, recognize themselves as Mexican citizens, and adhere to the Roman Catholic Church. In exchange, the government waived taxes and gave Texas settlers more liberties than afforded to other provinces.

Why did Moses Austin want to establish a settlement in Texas? ›

Unfortunately, the economic collapse following the War of 1812 destroyed the lead market and left him bankrupt. Determined to rebuild his fortune, Austin decided to draw on his experience with Spain and try to establish an American colony in Texas.

What was one requirement for settlers to come to Austin's colony? ›

The original rules of the grant from Mexico required that all settlers be Catholic. Most colonists accepted this condition, even though they did not change their faith. One settler wrote, "I know I can be as good a Christian there as I can here.

What were Austin's requirements for settlers? ›

Moses and Stephen Austin contracted to bring “500 families on the vacant lands remaining within the limits of the colony already established.” The contract stipulates that “The families which are to compose this Colony besides being industrious as he offers in his petition must be Cat[ho]lics, and of good morals.” ...

Were settlers of Texas required to become Catholic? ›

Since Roman Catholicism was the state religion for Spain and its colonies, Spain stipulated Catholicism as the state religion when Texas was opened to Anglo-American immigration in 1820. All newcomers were required to embrace it, and other religions were prohibited.

What law allowed Mexican settlers to settle in Texas? ›

The Colonization Law of August 18, 1824 was a Mexican statute allowing foreigners to immigrate to the country.

Why did Mexico allow US citizens to settle in Texas? ›

Feeling threatened by the native groups, and worried that the United States would try to take Texas, the Mexican government moved to enact policies to move more settlers into the area to help implement control over the region. The Mexican government worked with empresarios, who operated as land agents in Texas.

What were settlers required to set land aside to grow? ›

Rice, indigo, wine, and, most importantly, silk were the crops that were desired in England. In fact, silk was so important to the trustees that all colonists were required to set aside land on which to grow mulberry trees. The mulberry leaves were the food of choice for silkworms.

Who was the first person to settle in Texas? ›

Austin's Colony was the first and largest Anglo-American settlement in Mexican Texas and was established by Stephen F. Austin in 1821.

What was required of people who wanted to settle in Texas before the Mexican Revolution? ›

What was required of people who wanted to settle in Texas before the Mexican Revolution? They had to declare they would become loyal Spanish subjects.

How much did settlers have to pay to get land in Austin's colony? ›

The land would cost 12.5 cents per acre. Austin himself surveyed the land and prepared the land titles. He even extended credit to new settlers, allowing them time to pay.

What were the requirements of the old 300? ›

Each head of household received a minimum of 177 acres or 4,428 acres depending on whether they intended to farm or raise livestock. The grant could be increased for large families or those wishing to establish a new industry, but the lands would be forfeited if they were not cultivated within two years.

What declared Texas settlers free from Mexican rule? ›

A free and independent Republic of Texas was officially declared March 2, 1836. Over the course of the next several days, 59 delegates -- each representing one of the settlements in Texas -- approved the Texas Declaration of Independence.

What religion did all the settlers have to convert to in order to settle in Texas? ›

Until almost the end of Mexican Texas, Anglo-Americans seeking permission to settle in Texas had to accept the Catholic faith.

Who led settlers to Texas? ›

When Mexico won independence from Spain in 1821, Austin's son, Stephen Austin, received Mexican approval of the grant. He led his first band of settlers to the area along the lower Brazos and Colorado rivers. By 1832 Austin's several colonies had about 8,000 inhabitants.


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